References

1) Bowling Green, Ohio: Sanborn Map. New York: Sanborn Map Company, 1908.

2) Bowling Green, Ohio: Sanborn Map. New York: Sanborn Map Company, 1915.

3) Bowling Green, Ohio: Sanborn Map. New York: Sanborn Map Company, 1925.

4) Department of Charities and Corrections. The Indiana Bulletin. 375-468. Indiana: Department of Charities and Corrections:1913. 375-468.

5) Leeson, Michael A. Commemorative Historical and Biographical Record of Wood County, Ohio: It’s Past and Present, Early Settlement and Development: Aboriginal History; Pioneer History; Political Organization; Agriculture, Manufacturing, Commercial Interests, Including Oil and Gas; History of the County, Townships, Towns and Villages; Religious, Educational, Social, Political and Military History, Including Roster by Townships; Statistical and Miscellaneous Matter; Biographies and Portraits of Early Settlers and Representatives Citizens, Etc. Chicago: J. H. Beers & Co.: 1897.

6) Ohio. Wood County. 1870 U.S. Census, population schedule. Digital images. Familysearch.org. September 20, 2015. https://familysearch.org.

7) Ohio. Wood County. 1880 U.S. Census, population schedule. Digital images. Familysearch.org. September 20, 2015. https://familysearch.org.

8) Ohio. Wood County. 1900 U.S. Census, population schedule. Digital images. Familysearch.org. September 20, 2015. https://familysearch.org.

9) Wood County Infirmary. Annual Reports of Infirmary. 1869-1900. Wood County Historical Center and Museum.

10) Wood County Infirmary. Applications for Relief and County Home Register 1869-1900. Wood County Historical Center and Museum.

11) Wood County Infirmary. Director’s Journals. 1869-1900. Wood County Historical Center and Museum.

Secondary

12) Anderson, H. Dewey and Percy E. Davidson. “County Poor Farm Infmates Compared with Their Brothers and the Working Population of the Same Community.” Social Forces 16, no. 2 (1937):231-237.

13) Cottrell, Debbie Mauldin. “The County Poor Farm System in Texas.” The Southwestern Historical Quarterly 93, no. 2 (1989):169-190.

14) Eldersveld, Samuel J. Poor America: A Comparative Historical Stody of Poverty in the United States and Western Europe. New York: Lexington Books: 2007.

15) Garman, James C. and Paul A. Russo. “A Disregard of Every Sentiment of Humanity: The Town Farm and Class Realignment in Nineteenth-Century Rural New England.” Historical Archaeology 33, no. 1 (1999):118-135.

16) Iceland, John. Poverty in America: A Handbook. 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press: 2006.

17) McClure, Ethel. More than a Roof: The Development of Minnesota Poor Farms and Homes for the Aged. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society: 1968.

18) McClure, Ethel. “An Unlamented Era: County Poor Farms in Minnesota.” Minnesota History 38, no. 8 (1963):365-377.

19) Meltsner, Heli. The Poorhouses of Massachusetts: A Cultural and Architectural History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company: 2012.

20) Reef, Catherine. Poverty in America. New York: Facts on File: 2007.

21) Ruswick, Brent. Almost Worthy: The Poor, Paupers, and the Science of Charity in America, 1877-1917. Bloomington: Indiana University Press: 2013.

22) Schlesinger Jr., Arthur M., ed. The Almanac of American History. 3rd ed. New York: Bramhall House: 1983.

23) Segalman, Ralph and Asoke Basu. Poverty in America: The Welfare Dilemma. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press: 1981.

24) Spencer-Wood, Susan M. and Christopher N. Matthews. “Impoverishment, Criminalization, and the Culture of Poverty.” Historical Archaeology 45, no. 3 (2011):1-10.

25) Wagner, David. The Poorhouse: America’s Forgotten Institution. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers: 2005.

Stairs of the Wood County Infirmary worn by over 100 years of residents walking up and down them. Photo by author